Astra python example

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If nothing happens, download Xcode and try again. If nothing happens, download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio and try again. Astra can be used by security engineers or developers as an integral part of their process, so they can detect and patch vulnerabilities early during development cycle. Astra can take API collection as an input so this can also be used for testing apis in standalone mode.

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ASTRA Toolbox module: Volume data

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Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. I am currently working with an Orbbec Astra Mini depth sensor.

astra python example

The depth sensor is shown in the device manager on my Windows 10 as soon as I attach it to the USB port. So far everything is fine. If so, any useful links that might help me to make some progress? Any ideas what I might have missed?

Thank you Dmitrii! However, the depth image is still quite weak. So I guess the problem is somewhere within OpenCV? Hopefully someone else stumbling over this thread can use it.

Try implementing a false color map to the depth image. The different depth pixels have closely varying values, and thus not easily discernible if seen directly. Learn more. Ask Question. Asked 2 years, 2 months ago. Active 4 months ago.

Summarising, Aggregating, and Grouping data in Python Pandas

Viewed 3k times. Here's a screenshot of the depth map inverted to white, quite weak resonance :. So why won't you compile opencv with openni support? Feb 17 '18 at Thank you! Will go through the tutorial and report back. Dmitrii Z. Any ideas how to adjust depth camera properties in OpenCV? Active Oldest Votes. Comprehensive guide link is broken. You asked: However, the depth image is still quite weak.ASTRA logo. If you are into computed tomography CT from the perspective of algorithm development, or if you want to do the reconstruction yourself instead of using a standard software package e.

Full disclosure: I work at the Vision Lab as a postdoc. However, this article is not sponsored or endorsed by the Vision Lab, it is purely my own opinion. Because the Toolbox provides GPU implementations of basic components such as projectorsI could use GPU processing already during the experimental stage, allowing me to use real-world i. This is not obvious, since it is often only when an algorithm is complete that a GPU version is written, restricting initial testing to the aptly named academic examples.

If you are more of a Python person, there is also a Python wrapper. The example shows that you can do a lot with only a few lines of code. To keep things brief, there are not a lot of comments, but there are more detailed examples for each part of this script in the samples directory of the Toolbox.

The output of this script is shown below. On the left is the phantom with the two white squares. In the middle is the sinogram, which contains a 2D projection in each horizontal line. From this sinogram, the reconstruction on the right was created through the algebraic algorithm SIRT. Phantom leftsinogram middleand reconstruction right.

For more information on tomography itself, have a look at my series of articles on that subject.

astra python example

There is also a tutorial on creating a 3D reconstruction from 2D cone-beam projections that you might find interesting if you are working with your own datasets.

As a result, I was able to make several improvements to the text. Thanks again, Ali!

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I'm pretty new to using a lot of external libraries in python. Do you know if it's possible to install them and use them on an OS X machine? I want to get the cross sectional CT image of that model.

Is it possible using this software?

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If possible then how? If your data is suitable for CT reconstruction, i. Also note that your images must be preprocessed to make them true projections, as I explain in my series of articles on tomography. If your data consists of only a few images, or was taken with unknown source and detector positions, then it will be much more difficult or even impossible. Thank you for your answer.

I have all the information about detector positions and also all the X-ray images as well. Inside the toolbox all the examples used a single phantom and than rotate it to different directions. But my question is, how i can use all the available projections for CT reconstruction.

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I mean i want to use a series of images rather than using a single image and rotate is to different directions.

Really waiting for your response. The examples in the Toolbox often start from a phantom to create a dataset. Of course, you already have a dataset, and only need the second part of the example.When your data has different values, and even different measurement units, it can be difficult to compare them. What is kilograms compared to meters? Or altitude compared to time?

astra python example

The answer to this problem is scaling. We can scale data into new values that are easier to compare. Take a look at the table below, it is the same data set that we used in the multiple regression chapterbut this time the volume column contains values in liters instead of ccm 1. It can be difficult to compare the volume 1. There are different methods for scaling data, in this tutorial we will use a method called standardization. Where z is the new value, x is the original value, u is the mean and s is the standard deviation.

If you take the weight column from the data set above, the first value isand the scaled value will be:. If you take the volume column from the data set above, the first value is 1. You do not have to do this manually, the Python sklearn module has a method called StandardScaler which returns a Scaler object with methods for transforming data sets.

The task in the Multiple Regression chapter was to predict the CO2 emission from a car when you only knew its weight and volume. If you want to report an error, or if you want to make a suggestion, do not hesitate to send us an e-mail:. Example Predict the CO2 emission from a 1. LinearRegression regr. HOW TO. Your message has been sent to W3Schools. W3Schools is optimized for learning, testing, and training.

Examples might be simplified to improve reading and basic understanding. Tutorials, references, and examples are constantly reviewed to avoid errors, but we cannot warrant full correctness of all content. While using this site, you agree to have read and accepted our terms of usecookie and privacy policy. Copyright by Refsnes Data. All Rights Reserved.

Powered by W3.Update: Pandas version 0. This post has been updated to reflect the new changes. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness and simplicity of the grouping commands, we will need some data. I analyse this type of data using Pandas during my work on KillBiller. Phone numbers were removed for privacy. Once the data has been loaded into Python, Pandas makes the calculation of different statistics very simple. For example, mean, max, min, standard deviations and more for columns are easily calculable:.

The full range of basic statistics that are quickly calculable and built into the base Pandas package are:. The describe output varies depending on whether you apply it to a numeric or character column. Groupby essentially splits the data into different groups depending on a variable of your choice.

The groupby function returns a GroupBy object, but essentially describes how the rows of the original data set has been split.

For example:. Functions like maxminmeanfirstlast can be quickly applied to the GroupBy object to obtain summary statistics for each group — an immensely useful function. This functionality is similar to the dplyr and plyr libraries for R. The output from a groupby and aggregation operation varies between Pandas Series and Pandas Dataframes, which can be confusing for new users. As a rule of thumb, if you calculate more than one column of results, your result will be a Dataframe.

For a single column of results, the agg function, by default, will produce a Series. The aggregation functionality provided by the agg function allows multiple statistics to be calculated per group in one calculation. Instructions for aggregation are provided in the form of a python dictionary or list. The aggregation dictionary syntax is flexible and can be defined before the operation. To apply multiple functions to a single column in your grouped data, expand the syntax above to pass in a list of functions as the value in your aggregation dataframe.

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AstraZeneca is one of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies. With over 54, employees world-wide, it provides innovative, effective medicines designed to fight cancer, provide pain control, heal infection, and fight diseases of the cardiovascular, central nervous, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems. A big problem early in the process is identifying those candidates more likely to be good drugs from the vast universe of possible molecules.

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Computational chemists have developed many techniques to predict molecular properties. These can be used to evaluate the likelihood that a molecule will be stable in the stomach for pills that are swallowedand that it can travel through the blood stream, cross the cell membrane, and eventually be broken down and eliminated, all without being too toxic to the body.

If these computational techniques were good enough there would be no need to do actual experiments. But today's computer models cannot fully characterize a molecule's behavior in the body, nor replace the intuition of a skilled pharmaceutical chemist.

Real molecules must still be tested in the laboratory to see how they react. To save time and money on laboratory work, experimental chemists use computational models to narrow the field of good drug candidates, while also verifying that the candidates to be tested are not simple variations of each other's basic chemical structure.

Much of the work on drug identification actually takes place through collaboration between many research groups scattered around the world. As part of this process, experimental chemists send a list of compounds to the computational chemist, who works on the data set and sends back the results.

Historically, experimental chemists were forced to rely on computational chemists and other staff to run computer predictions. Each prediction technique required running a separate program, some commercial and others developed in-house by different groups around the company, and each program had its own set of inputs, options, configurations, and failure behaviors.

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An experimental chemist usually didn't have the training to work with them, which meant that the computational chemists were forced to take time out of their work on developing new techniques to run routine models. InAstraZeneca wanted to improve this process so that experimental chemists could make better computational predictions on their own, and so that the research of the computational chemists could progress at a faster rate, and make its way into the lab more quickly.

He developed a web-based interface called H2X, named after the allied navigation systems used during the second world war. H2X was based on an in-house molecular property calculator called Drone.

This system used a Perl script which computed some of the simpler molecular properties by calling the appropriate prediction program, usually through a wrapper written in Perl, csh, or a domain specific control language. H2X using Drone was a successful experiment and it was used by many people.

In AstraZeneca decided to develop it further and brought in Andrew Dalke as a consultant, to improve the back-end code by making it more robust, extensible, and maintainable. Andrew, a well-known advocate for Python in computational chemistry and biology, convinced the group that Python was the appropriate language for the next generation back-end, which was named PyDrone.

Python was chosen for this work because it is one of the best languages available for physical scientists, that is, for people who do not have a computer science background.

Astra : Automated Security Testing For REST API’s

Of all these, Python is one of the few that is based on research into usability and the factors that make a programming language easy to learn and use. Yet Python was also designed to solve real-world problems faced by an expert programmer.

The result is a language that scales well from small scripts written by a chemist to large packages written by a software developer. The first iteration of PyDrone refactored the existing Perl code into more appropriate functions, classes, and modules while translating the code base into Python.

astra python example

Refactoring the Perl code without moving to Python would have produced comparable architectural results, but Python's explicit error handling and stronger type checking helped to considerably improve the code's robustness. The current version of PyDrone uses about 20 different external binaries and scripts to predict various molecular properties.This page contains examples and links to programs used for our Research Methods - Programming with Python short course.

There are many built-in features of Python that are described in the documentationbut to get started let's do something very easy. That is, the function int took the integer part of z. You can put that in another variable such as. Curiously, a seems to be an integer. It is said to be dymanically typed in this assignment. That can change.

If you now add a little bit to a you'll see it turns into a floating point number. There's much more you can do, of course, but you need to import the math functions first. Here's one way to do that. The comprehensive list of math functions is on the Python documentation site. You can try out some of the more exotic possibilities on your own.

Select your favorite Python editor, and create a file we'll call test. If you have the Python interpreter associated with a. Alternatively, in Linux or MacOS, if the first line of the file is. Here is how you would write a "Hello World" program in python:. The first three are for the user who owns the file, the second three are for the group that use belongs to, and the last three are for everybody else.

With that, I can simply type. The prefatory ". Obviously there are operating system nuances here that have nothing in particular to do with Python, but have to be mastered to use the computer to its fullest.

Alternatively on any system you can explictly ask for the python program. This is a an example of a Python program that asks for a value, calculates a result, and displays it for the user. The source code is available here in the file trig. Down load by right clicking and saving the file locally with the extension. Suppose that we have a catalog of data containing information about astronomical objects, and we want to find the data in the catalog that are specifically for one entry, given my name.

A typical use would be on the command line when that's possible, or by reading the name from another file. For this purpose we'll take the catalog called ngc A program illustrating the ideas we have discussed so far is available here. The data file ngc The reader will look for this catalog in the same directory it is executing, and will expect an NGC or IC number on the command line. If your operating system does not handle command line input, try it with the number assigned as text within the program body, and delete the code that reads the command line.

Programs illustrating how to do simple 2D plotting that we discussed here are available here.

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